In this chapter, we cover the ARM version 8 application profile
(ARMv8-A) architecture A64 ISA, the latest ARM ISA that is in use on all Linux OS ARM
computers. Recall that an instruction
set architecture (or ISA) defines the set of instructions and binary encodings of a
machine-level program. To run the examples in this chapter, you will need access to a machine with
an ARMv8-A processor with a 64-bit operating system installed. The examples in
this chapter use a Raspberry Pi 3B+ running the 64-bit Ubuntu Mate operating
system. Note that every Raspberry Pi released since 2016 can use the A64 ISA.
However, Raspberry Pi OS (the default Raspberry Pi operating system) is still 32-bit
at the time of writing. Readers can confirm that they have a 64-bit version
of the OS on their system by running the
uname -p command.
A system with a 64-bit operating system will output the following:
$ uname -p aarch64
While it is possible to build ARM binaries on Intel machines using ARM’s GNU toolchain cross-compilation tools, you cannot run ARM binaries directly on a x86 system. Readers interested in learning about ARM assembly directly on their laptops are encouraged to explore QEMU, which can emulate an ARM system. Emulators differ from virtual machines in that they also simulate the hardware of another system.
Another alternative is to use one of Amazon’s recently released EC2 A1 instances. Each instance gives users access to a 64-bit Graviton processor which follows the ARMv8-A specification.
Keep in mind, however, that the specific assembly instructions produced by a compiler are highly influenced by the operating system and precise machine architecture. Therefore, the assembly produced on AWS instances or through QEMU emulation may differ slightly from the examples shown in this chapter.