## 4. Binary and Data Representation

From simple stone tablets and cave paintings to written words and phonograph grooves, humans have perpetually sought to record and store information. In this chapter, we’ll characterize how the latest of humanity’s big storage breakthroughs, digital computing, represents information. We also illustrate how to interpret meaning from digital data.

Modern computers utilize a variety of media for storing information (e.g.,
magnetic disks, optical discs, flash memory, tapes, and simple electrical
circuits). We characterize storage devices later in
Chapter 11; however, for this
discussion, the medium is largely irrelevant — whether there’s a laser scanning
the surface of a DVD or a disk head gliding over a magnetic platter, the output
from the storage device is ultimately a sequence of electrical signals. To
simplify the circuitry, each signal is **binary**, meaning it can take only one
of two states: the absence of a voltage (interpreted as zero) and the presence
of a voltage (one). This chapter explores how systems encode information into
binary, regardless of the original storage medium.

In binary, each signal corresponds to one **bit** (binary digit) of information:
a zero or a one. It may be surprising that all data can be represented using
just zeros and ones. Of course, as the complexity of information increases,
so does the number of bits needed to represent it. Luckily, the number of
unique values doubles for each additional bit in a bit sequence, so a sequence
of *N* bits can represent 2^{N} unique values.

Figure 1 illustrates the growth in the number of representable
values as the length of a bit sequence increases. A single bit can represent
*two* values: 0 and 1. Two bits can represent *four* values: both of the
one-bit values with a leading 0 (00 and 01), and both of the one-bit values with
a leading 1 (10 and 11). The same pattern applies for any additional bit that
extends an existing bit sequence: the new bit can be a 0 or 1, and in either
case, the remaining bits represent the same range of values they did prior to
the new bit being added. Thus, adding additional bits exponentially increases
the number of values the new sequence can represent.

Because a single bit doesn’t represent much information, storage systems
commonly group bits into longer sequences for storing more interesting values.
The most ubiquitous grouping is a **byte**, which is a collection of eight bits.
One byte represents 2^{8} = 256 unique values (0-255) — enough to enumerate the
letters and common punctuation symbols of the English language. Bytes are the
smallest unit of addressable memory in a computer system, meaning a program
can’t ask for fewer than eight bits to store a variable.

Modern CPUs also typically define a **word** as either 32 bits or 64 bits,
depending on the design of the hardware. The size of a word determines the
"default" size a system’s hardware uses to move data from one component to
another (e.g., between memory and registers). These larger sequences are
necessary for storing numbers, since programs often need to count higher than
256!

If you’ve programmed in C, you know that you must
declare a variable
before using it. Such declarations inform the C compiler of two important
properties regarding the variable’s binary representation: the number of bits
to allocate for it, and the way in which the program intends to interpret those
bits. Conceptually, the number of bits is straightforward, as the compiler
simply looks up how many bits
are associated with the declared type (e.g., a `char`

is one byte) and
associates that amount of memory with the variable. The interpretation of a
sequence of bits is much more conceptually interesting. All data in a
computer’s memory is stored as bits, but bits have no *inherent* meaning. For
example, even with just a single bit, you could interpret the bit’s two values
in many different ways: up and down, black and white, yes and no, on and off,
etc.

Extending the length of a bit sequence expands the range of its
interpretations. For example, a `char`

variable uses the American Standard
Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) encoding standard, which defines how
an eight-bit binary value corresponds to English letters and punctuation symbols.
Table 1 shows a small subset of the ASCII standard (for a full reference,
run `man ascii`

on the command line). There’s no special reason why the character
`'X'`

needs to correspond to 01011000, so don’t bother memorizing the table.
What matters is that every program storing letters agrees on their bit sequence
interpretation, which is why ASCII is defined by a standards committee.

Binary value | Character interpretation | Binary value | Character interpretation |
---|---|---|---|

01010111 |
W |
00100000 |
space |

01011000 |
X |
00100001 |
! |

01011001 |
Y |
00100010 |
" |

01011010 |
Z |
00100011 |
# |

Any information can be encoded in binary, including rich data like graphics and audio. For example, suppose that an image encoding scheme defines 00, 01, 10, and 11 to correspond to the colors white, orange, blue, and black. Figure 2 illustrates how we might use this simple two-bit encoding strategy to draw a crude image of a fish using only 12 bytes. In part a, each cell of the image equates to one two-bit sequence. Parts b and c show the corresponding binary encoding as two-bit and byte sequences, respectively. Although this example encoding scheme is simplified for learning purposes, the general idea is similar to what real graphics systems use, albeit with many more bits for a wider range of colors.

Having just introduced two encoding schemes, the same bit sequence, 01011010,
might mean the character `'Z'`

to a text editor, whereas a graphics program
might interpret it as part of a fish’s tail fin. Which interpretation is
correct depends on the context. Despite the underlying bits being the same,
humans often find some interpretations much easier to comprehend than others
(e.g., perceiving the fish as colored cells rather than a table of bytes).

The remainder of this chapter largely deals with representing and manipulating binary numbers, but the overall point bears repeating: all information is stored in a computer’s memory as 0’s and 1’s, and it’s up to programs or the people running them to interpret the meaning of those bits.